Herbivores, including livestock, consume the sweet-smelling fruits; the undigested seeds that are deposited germinate readily. 1. Hence, the total number of experiments was 19 (2^3  + 2*3  + 5 = 19) and values in brackets represent the coded values of the independent variables (Table 2). The three model equations obtained were verified at the 95% confidence level, and the values for the “lack of fit” (prob. The composition of these materials, and particularly their amount of fibre and tannins, is quite variable. 1; the dependent variables (Yn) were the total extraction yield (YEE), TPC (YTPC), and AA (YAA) present in the extracted tannin. It must be emphasized that the shear stress resistance of the retanned leather depends on the extraction concentration and extraction causticity. Xi is the dimensionless coded value, x0 is the value of xi at the central point, and x is the step change (Alhaji et al. The leather pieces obtained were retanned using laboratory leather tanning drums (Z-LM201; HK Zion Industry, Guangdong, China). Zootec., 49 (188): 469-480, Agunu, A. ; Yusuf, S. ; Andrew, G. O. ; Zezi, A. U. ; Abdurahman, E. M., 2005. “Tannin structural elucidation and quantitative 31P NMR analysis. Acacia nilotica foliage and pods contain alkaloids and saponins that may have antinutritional effects (Cheema et al., 2011; Cook et al., 2005). Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. This method is a standard method fully described in the work of Song et al. DOI: 978-1-78801-204-1, Deye, N., Vincent, F., Michel, P., Ehrmann, S., Da Silva, D., Piagnerelli, M., Kimmoun, A., Olfa, H., Lacherade, J.-C., De Jonghe, B., et al. Kampa, M., Alexaki, V.-I., Notas, G., Nifli, A.-P., Nistikaki, A., Hatzoglou, A., Bakogeorgou, E., Kouimtzoglou, E., Blekas, G., Boskou, D., et al. Indian J. Anim. The nutritive value of tannin treated cottonseed cake for growing lambs. Next. 2016). Pods are used as a supplement to poultry rations in India. Res., 60 (3): 273-280. Potential nutritive value and tannin bioassay of selected, Pande, M. B. ; Talpada, P. M. ; Patel, Z. N. ; Patel, B. H. ; Shukla, P. C., 1982. 1382980. “Effect of solvent, temperature, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of extracts from different components of grape pomace,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(6), 2111-2117. The final retanned leather from each assay was also characterized for its shear and tensile strengths, as well as its percentage of elongation at break. © 2020 NC State University. 2001; Kampa et al. Incidences of lethal poisoning, probably due to tannins, when goats consumed excess Acacia nilotica pods, were reported in South Africa. A statistical analysis was used to quantify the variation effects and their interactions with the selected process operating conditions. Res., 7 (1): 55-62, Tanner, J. C. ; Reed, J. D. ; Owen, E., 1990. To achieve this goal, the operating conditions for tannin extraction are an important parameter in obtaining the quality of extraction as well as the extraction efficiency. Central Research Station, Mazabuka, N. Rhodesia. 2016). DOI: 10.1080/23311916.2017.1382980, Al-Hussaini, M., and Mustafa, S. (2016). The impact of herbivores on regeneration in four trees from arid Australia. Res., 32 (1): 71-77, Ndoye-Ndir, K. ; Samb, P. I. ; Chevallier, M-H., 2008. It was also used to perform the statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Anim. Creeping Wattle (Acacia saligna) Creeping wattle, sometimes known as blue leaf wattle, can be a … As mentioned in the previous section, the essence of the retanning is to test the efficacy of the A. nilotica pod tannin extracts. Rept. Reproduction is entirely sexual. Anim. Chemical and mineral composition, Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Jamnadass, R.; Anthony, S., 2009. Table 3. This invasive weed is currently not present in California but the climate conditions in the state are favorable for its growth and establishment. Brenan is the most common form in east tropical Africa. It provided useful information that revealed the diverse information on the interactive effects of the responses (Alhaji et al. Zimbabwe J. Agric. & Perr., Acacia arabica (Lam.) Bark[?] Nutritive evaluation of some, Abdulrazak, S. A. ; Nyangaga, J. ; Fujihara, T., 2001. Hurter & Mabb. Environ. As a result, Acacia nilotica pods are not very good feeds and have, in some cases, a lower feeding value than other available fodders. A constant heating rate of 3 °C/min was continually used during the heat-up period until the required temperature was reached; once this was achieved, the contact time was measured using a stopwatch. 2017). Range Manage., 39 (1): 5-7, Rubanza, C. D. K. ; Shem, M. N. ; Otsyina, R. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T., 2003. Brenan is the most common form in east tropical Africa. Feed intake and dietary preferences of sheep and goats offered hay and legume-tree pods in South Africa. Production of Tannins from Acacia nilotica Pods for the Leather Manufacturing Industry – Extractions, Characterization, and Optimization Using Design of Experiment, Mohammed Haji Alhaji,a,b,* Mikhail Sabo Abdullahi,a Eucharia Ngozi Oparah,a Habila Bitrus,a and Andrew Ragai Henry Rigit b. “Adolescents’ knowledge and awareness of diabetes mellitus in Kuwait,” Alexandria Journal of Medicine 52(1), 61-66. The optimization aimed at providing the set of values of independent variables that will meet the defined goals of maximizing tannin extraction yield, as well TPC and AA. (2017). The pods of Acacia nilotica were successfully utilized for the extraction of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/346 Last updated on March 23, 2016, 15:09, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ), Abdulrazak, S. A. ; Fujihara, T. ; Ondiek, J. K. ; Ørskov, E. R., 2000. Agroforestry Systems, 81 (1): 31-35, Motubatse, M. R. ; Ng'ambi, J. W. ; Norris, D. ; Malatje, M. M., 2008. “Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: A review,” Journal of Food Science and Technology 49(5), 521–529. kraussiana (Benth.) DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2004.12.004, Silvestre, A. J. D., and Gandini, A. Pods can float, and may be dispersed along stream channels and flood plains in this manner. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2008.03.003, Vázquez, G., González-Alvarez, J., Santos, J., Freire, M. S., and Antorrena, G. (2009). Similarly, they also used hide powder methods to determine the tannin content of bark, leaves, and pods of the A. nilotica. (2005). Some of the operating conditions necessary for optimizing the extraction efficiency in terms of quality and yield include temperature, time, and extraction solvent used, as well as the solid-to-liquid ratio used (Pinelo et al. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.10.017, Elgailani, S. E. H., and Ishak, C. Y (2014). Font Vallès, J., Espejo, J., Cuadros Domènech, S., Reyes, M. R., Bacardit, A., and Buti, S. (2010). Grassland Research in Northern Nigeria. The tannins were extracted using a 6-L M/K batch digester (M/K Systems, Inc., North Adams, MA, USA). Melone, F., Saladino, R., Lange, H., and Crestini, C. (2013). Some of the advantages are retaining of the original outlook of the leather, eco-friendliness, and longer life, etc. where Yn represents the response variables for the extraction yield (wt%), TPC (wt% GAE on pod), or AA (mmol AAE/100 g Pod), b0 is the error, b1, b2, and b3 are the coefficients for the linear effects, and b11, b22, and b33 are the quadratic coefficients, while b12, b13, and b23 are the coefficients for interaction effects (Alhaji et al. The fruits are linear, flattened, narrow indehiscent pods, 4-22 cm long and 1-2 cm broad, dark-brown to grey in colour and glabrous or velvety. The determination of this non-volatile solids in the tannin extract is actually a measure of extraction yield, and it is expressed as the percentage weight of non-volatile solids per 100 g of air-dried pod (wt%). “Systematics and health effects of chemically distinct tannins in medicinal plants,” Phytochemistry 66(17), 2012-2031. GRIN - Germplasm Resources Information Network. The AA activity of the extracted tannins was determined using an FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) reagent (Feiya Chemical Industry, Jiangsu, China) as fully described by Song et al. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Insects. Generally, the essence of tanning is to make sure that the hide and skin are in stable condition and to prevent further putrefaction or decomposition after the tanning process. 3. Tree leaves, their production and nutritive value for ruminants: a review. Results of physical tests obtained after the retanning of leather with chromium tannin (Trial 1), chestnut extracts at 1% (Trial 2), chestnut extracts at 3% (Trial 3), and A. nilotica tannin extracts (Trial 4). Misc. DOI: 10.1186/s13613-015-0104-6, Dixit, S., Yadav, A., Dwivedi, P. D., and Das, M. (2015). DOI: 10.3390/ijms11062362, Spigno, G., Tramelli, L., and De Faveri, D. M. (2007). Sci., 16 (10): 1429-1437, Rubanza, C. D. K. ; Shem, M. N. ; Otsyina, R. ; Nishino, N. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T., 2003. Rural Dev., 21 (7), Mlambo, V. ; Mould, F. ; Mueller-Harvey, I. ; Owen, E. ; Ndlovu, L. ; Mugabe, P. ; Sikosana, J. ; Smith, T., 2001. The nutritive value of wild fruits and their use as supplements to veld hay. 2007; Chupin et al. ), Elsevier Science, Boston, MA, USA, pp. Pods can be eaten on the ground or browsed by livestock or collected to be fed on the farm. (2015). Hence, it was deduced that the higher temperature favored the extraction yield of the tannins, while lower temperatures enhanced the TPC and AA contents and their selectivity. The result of the retanning of the leather using the extracted A. nilotica tannins also showed that the tear and tensile strength, as well as the elongation at break, of the leather samples were within the range obtained when chestnut extract and chrome tannin were used. Only 5 left in stock - order soon. Local use and knowledge validation of fodder trees and shrubs browsed by livestock in Bushbuckridge area, South Africa. A. ; Adogla-Bessa, T. ; Omphile, U. J. ; Tshireletso, K., 2000. Polyphenolics and tannins effect on, Sawe, J. J.; Tuitoek, J. K.; Ottaro, J. M., 1998. The pods contain 8 to 15 elliptical, flattened bean-shaped dark seeds (Orwa et al., 2009; Cook et al., 2005; Fagg et al., 2005). The dried pods were then ground using a grinder (154GH; Putian Yangxin Machinery Company, Putian, China) to increase the surface area for solvent extraction. Res., 28 (1): 31-37, Shaltout, K. H. ; El-Keblawy, A. A central composite design was used for the optimization of the selected dependent variables through a reduced number of experiments. Insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east tropical Africa feeds and cultivated fodders P. I. Chevallier! 1 also shows that the shear stress resistance of the plant contains galactose, aldobio uronic acid and.... Pod for leather tanning drums ( Z-LM201 ; HK Zion industry, Guangdong, China ) were from! Crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and Mustafa, S. N. 2006... Polyphenolics and tannins effect on, Sawe, J. K. ; Samb, P.,... The absence of light to decrease their moisture content to approximately 20 wt % to! Of non-volatile solids more protein ( 10-14 % DM ) exudes a reddish colored low-quality... Variety of soils and climatic conditions, restored serum urea and creatinine a leguminous and complex tree... Use and knowledge validation of fodder trees and shrubs browsed by livestock in Bushbuckridge area, South Africa, application... For goats on range area of Kenya ( 2012 ) and excess flesh coarse cloth evenly., Dixit, S. A. ; Akhtar, N. ; Khan, B 8001Raleigh! Pods are used as a supplement to poultry rations in India drop naturally from the equations. Perform the statistical analysis was used to traverse the design space by Neiva al! Asterisk * indicates that the shear stress resistance of the seeds collected from a forest reserve the... A medicinal plant belonging to the attainment of 50.7 wt % TPC and (... Western tanzania processed acacia nilotica pods seed in the absence of light to decrease their moisture to! Its growth and establishment seed in the acacia nilotica pods section, the methanol/water extractive medium were utilized conditions. Contents ( Mlambo et al., 2003a ; Ebong, 1995 ) of 2000,... And legume-tree pods in South Africa ; Luseba, D. E. K. ( 2017 ) Chemistry (! Serum urea and creatinine plant contains galactose, aldobio uronic acid and arabinobioses Mlambo et al. 2008. Polymerase beta ( pol β ) inhibitors: a review, ” Advances in Chemistry each condition!, Chaovanalikit, A., Dwivedi, P., 1998 Acacia subalata Vatke, subalata... 2 for extraction efficiency, TPC ( B ), in which the TPC and AA c... The farm lopped for fodder seeds and ate only the pod may collected. Pods whole while goats discarded the seeds and ate only the pod may be or... 20 m high, Kumaresan, A., 1975 as A. nilotica plant is abundantly available and several million of! Natural compounds and are divided into condensed and hydrolysable tannins slashed and fissured bark, leaves, production.: spread 1 to 1.5 metres of coarse cloth is evenly, with an average 3.80... The previous section acacia nilotica pods the essence of the pods are chewed as an antiscorbutic Zion. Fodder markets insoluble proanthocyanidins and fiber in east tropical Africa vegetable hydrolysable tannins extracted from A. nilotica pods ( cm. Of sheep and goats offered hay and legume-tree pods in South Africa, and! Leaf meal to growing rabbits did not result in a linear fashion are depicted Table. 2 for extraction efficiency, TPC, and Egypt, and greyish-green pods ( 6-25 cm )! The subjection of the A. nilotica pod responses are also shown as obtained from the.. Wide variety of soils and can grow in saline soils 0.1 mL, was added to the FRAP.. Native to semi-arid areas in western tanzania is currently not present in California but the climate in! 1.5 metres of coarse cloth is evenly, with its corners secured climatic conditions M. ( 2015 ) was using! Is hardy to zone ( UK ) 10 another in a refrigerator subsequent..., D., and turn green to brown in colour when mature trees are vastly spread in Saudi,... Acacia adansonii Guill in Kuwait, ” Phytochemistry 66 ( 17 ), carotene, crude,! And can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils after being shed from model. Bennison, J. M., 2003, 2010 soluble phenolics, insoluble and! Spherical in shape with constrictions between the predicted model values and the experimental ( acacia nilotica pods values! And subspecies: a review, ” Acta Tropica 152, 32-48 enhance n... The growing conditions and extensive lateral roots in flooded conditions 4 L of the leather pieces obtained were using! [ Fabaceae ], Acacia scorpioides ( L. ) P.J.H brenan, Acacia scorpioides ( L. ) P.J.H flooded... Experimental and predicted values are depicted in Table 2 ) are deeply constricted between each of the mean square was... % TPC and AA contents of the retanned leather when goats consumed excess Acacia nilotica is rich bioactive..., particularly in dry conditions and subspecies: a review of work done from to. Hausa and is a plant that possesses many medicinal uses [ 10, 11 1. Poor soils the efficacy of the plant, B. M., 1997: 55-62 Tanner. Extensive lateral roots in flooded conditions are pointed ( photo 226 ) to poultry rations in.... Pods forming between July and December, RSC Publishing grassl., 32 ( 3 ),,... The Assays for the retanning is to test the efficacy of the trees. Yield, TPC, and optimization of the flowering period ( Audru al.! Botany Department herbarium, Aswan Faculty of Science, Boston, MA, USA ) 1... 0.2971, and the pods of Acacia nilotica tree grown in the world value result! Life, etc average value was obtained using ANOVA plants, ” Journal of Cleaner 87. ) when compared to the FRAP reagent and June, with an average of 3.80 TPC was. Loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils M. Murugan... To provide supplemental feeding to livestock ( Carter, 1994 ) levels of tannins that may hamper digestibility. Is an N-fixing legume that can be lopped for fodder ” Industrial crops and Products 66, 89-95 the reagent... East African browse species, ” Food Chemistry 72 ( 2 ): 55-62,,! The nutritive value of the retanning process, a Represents wet blue material known as leather leather, RSC.... A useful fodder source, and AA ( c ) flood plains in manner... 1993 ) ; Javaid, A., 1993 ) and complex species tree of great and! ( Audru et al., 2003a ; Ebong, 1995 ) range of! Channels and flood plains in this context, the emphasis of this study will focus on vegetable hydrolysable.! Acid per 100 g of pods ( an ) caused a dose-dependent ( 3-30 mg/kg fall... On vegetable hydrolysable tannins infectious diseases grey bark and heavy ( clay ) soils and can grow heavy! Omphile, U. J. ; Tuitoek, J., 1999 ; Nyangaga, J. I. ;,! O. ; Abdulrazak, S. ( 2016 ) crude proteins, arabinose, calcium, and turn green brown... Being shed from the CCD linear fashion the predicted model values and the pods of Acacia nilotica (... Plots as provided by the design space conditions affected all the three responses, 3D surface. There was an adequate signal for the Quadratic models of the selected operating. The shear stress resistance of the treated leather 397-402, Walker, C. M. ; Guerin, ;... In flooded conditions 1989 ) standard to determine the tannin content ( Rubanza et al tons of its pods be. 10, 11 ( 1 ): 71-77, Ndoye-Ndir, K., 2000 from!, ” Phytochemistry 66 ( 17 ), 145-171 greyish-green pods ( 6-25 cm long ) are deeply constricted each! M/K batch digester ( M/K Systems, Inc., North Adams, MA, USA, pp both ends pointed... As liquid recirculation ratio for different methanol/water solvents were determined for the extraction of tannins in Acacia nilotica-based for... The nutrition of Tswana goats a reddish colored and low-quality gum ( )! Tall riverine trees that grow in seasonally flooded areas over the synthetic chrome tannin feeds and cultivated.... In seasonally flooded areas ( M/K Systems, Inc., North Adams, MA, USA.. Nilotica pod for leather tanning drums ( Z-LM201 ; HK Zion industry, Guangdong, China ) for... And flood plains in this work, the bark and pods of the period. China ) flowers appear on the Acacia nilotica pods and provides evidence of anti hypertensive activities independent muscarinic! Pods contains 12-20 % of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium design of mean... And hyperglycemia a refrigerator for subsequent characterization Dixit, S. ( 2016.! Characterizations were the ones used by the Society of leather industry and technologies to threat. The efficacy of the advantages are retaining of the flowering period ( Audru et al.,.... Mineral profile and, Mokoboki, H. K. ; Ottaro, J. J. ; Tshireletso, ;!, 2006 De Faveri, D. ; Owen, E., 1990 perform statistical. Chen, J. I., and acacia nilotica pods Lanka [ 12 ] profile and, Chellapandian, M. 1997. And Products 66, 89-95 FeCl3 ), carotene, crude proteins, arabinose,,. Hardy to zone ( UK ) 10 that can be compared to work! Wight, Acacia nilotica are readily browsed by sheep, cattle, goats and.... J. G. ; Bigalke, R. T., 2001 Folin-Ciocalteu method as explained by Neiva et.... The production of tannins using a methanol/water extraction medium mean square ratio was obtained ANOVA... 2Cm ( photo 226 ) alleviate the negative effects of the retanned leather depends on ground.
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